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I C O N E S

PLANTARUM INDLE ORIENTALIS.

OR

FIGURES OF INDIAN PLANTS.

BY

ROBERT WIGHT, m. d., f. s., Sec.

MEMBER OF THE IMP. ACAD. NATURvE CURIOSORUM,

VOL. I.

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MADRAS:

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J •' , . » PUBLISHED BY J B. PKASOAH.

FOR THE AUTHOR.

MDCCCXL.

Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2015

https://archive.org/details/b21912762_0001

TO

THE MEMORY

op

WILLIAM ROXBURGH,

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INDIAN BOTANISTS.

PROSPECTUS.

PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION

Ik Monthly Numbers of Twenty Plates each, price Two Rupees, printed uniform with the

Illustrations of Indian Botany.

ICONES PLANTARUM indle orientalis,

OR

FIGURES OF INDIAN PLANTS, described in the author's PRODROMUS FLORAE PENINSULAR INDIAN ORIENTALIS ;

AND IN HIS

ILLUSTRATIONS OF INDIAN BOTANY.

No. 1, to appear in July.

Almost before the 1st Number of my " Illustrations" had issued from the press, I had become sensible, flhat the number of plates, which the plan of that work admitted, was inadequate for the attainment of one of its principal objects, the full elucidation, namely, of the distinctive characters of the natural orders as explained in the descriptive portion of the work; much of which, in consequence, remains to many, almost a sealed book, from the examples I am obliged to quote in illustration of my meaning, being often unknown to the reader. To go no further than the accompanying number 1 may refer to the description of Capparideae, where several examples are quoted in support of particular statements, such as Cadaba, Gy nandropsis, Polanesia, &c, not one of which, though all most common plants, may be known to the majority of readers, and to such therefore can af- ford but little assistance towards acquiring a c rrect knowledge of the peculiarities they are intended to ex- plain. This information I am desirous of communicating through the aid of additional figures. Again when treating of " Properties and Uses" of plants, many are mentioned as meriting attention on account of proper- ties, they are known to possess, but of whose forms the name communicates no definite idea. Thus under Dil- leniaeeae, both Dillenia speciosa and Wormia Madagascariensis are mentioned as desirable additions to the orna- mental shrubbery, but whom, of the many persons who may have read these encomium*, who have never seen either the plants themselves, or a figure, can form a just conception of their fitness for the purpose indicated. Almost every order treated of, affords similar examples, and many of them most common plants. In conversa- tion plants are often spoken of, as endowed with valuable properties, but about which we may remain as much in ignorance as before, however common the plant, if we happen not to know the name, and have no figure to consult on the occasion. To supply such a book of reference is another object of these figures. For want of figures Dr. Ainslie's Materia Medica of Hindoostan, to compile which cost him nearly 20 years of incessant application and research, remains to this day, little better than a monument of abortive labour, so few persons of the many in this country who consult it, possessing sufficient acquaintance with the plants named, to be able to recognise them even when laid before them, and fewer still, to go in search of them when wanted. Hence, of nearly 500 species of plants named in that work, as used for medicine, food, or in the arts, scarcely one-tenth are known to Europeans, and perhaps not more than a third to Natives generally, and of which non- Botanical readers have no other means of acquiring a knowledge, than through the oral communication of natives, whose acquaintance with the plants indicated, being entirely traditional, without any guide to direct them always to the same plant, is often, as likely to be wrong as right. This is no imaginary statement, it is one, the truth of which I have seen verified in a thousand instances. Another, and not the least important purpose of these figures therefore is, to give a value to that work, by making known through correct de- lineations, the plants meant by the Author, and at the same time, to establish the Native names, of atleastso many of our indigenous plants, on a firm basis, by combining them with representations of the objects named. Such a work still remains an important desideratum to all classes of the community.

To attempt all this by the publication of Coloured Plates, would only tend to defeat my object, since the heavy cost, and great length of time required to colour each plate separately, after printing, by the hand Would perhaps grea ly abridge the usefulness of the work, as well by retarding its progress, as by limiting its circulation to the wealthier classes. My wish is to diffuse as quickly, and as extensively as possible, a know- ledge of Indian Plants, by publishing as many as possible in the shortest period of time, and at the lowest charge. To attain these objects, the figures will be prepared in the style adopted in the accompanying

PROSPECTUS.

specimens, two of which are copies of plates already published in the Illustrations, and the other two copied from copper plate engravings. The first were selected to admit of comparison with the originals, to enable those who contemplate supporting the work to judge, how far such figures are fitted to supply the place of coloured ones in communicating a knowledge of the plant represented. Still further to reduce cost, and increase the rapidity of publication, it is not my intention to give letter-press descriptions, but refer for these to my Prodromus, by numbering the plates uniform with the running numbers of that work, except in cases where new plants, are introduced; and then their place in the arrangement will be indicated by a double number, and a description given, printed in such a form, as to admit of its being either pasted on the back of the plate, or kept separate. For such descriptions no additional charge will be made. By the adoption of this plan, these figures will form, so far as they go, a Pictorial Index to the Prodromus, and to the new species described in my Illustrations of Indian Botany. Utility and an anxious desire of making known, as many Indian plants as possible, being my principal inducement for under- taking this work, I shall consider it open to the contributions of those who may feel desirous of assisting me by communicating good figures of interesting plants, (if accompanied by specimens to enable me to verify their correctness) all of which shall be duly acknowledged. Occasionally also, when unable to procure specimens from which to prepare original drawings, I shall consider myself at liberty to select from rare and costly works now little known and seldom met with in this country, figures of useful plants. Among the works alluded to, may he mentioned the magnificent ones of Rheede, Roxburgh, and Wallich, the latter of whom, has obligingly permitted me to select from his publications, whatever I may think useful for this one. The plants mentioned in Ainslie's Materia Medica will of course occupy a prominent place, first as more especially appertaining to the Economical Botany of the Peninsula (they will always be accompanied by his names) and secondly because 1 hold it to be a matter of primary importance, to make known, as many as possible of the plants referred to in a work so generally known and consulted as that is in India.

The grand object of this work may now be summed up in few words, viz. to give to India, (so far as the li- mited resources of a private individual will permit) that which England has so long enjoyed, in " Smith's English Botany," a standard Botanical Book of reference; by the publication of correct figures, of as many Indian Plants as I possibly can and in the shortest period of time.

The publication of 120 figures per annum is scarcely sufficient to meet my own wishes in that respect, but it is the utmost I can venture to promise at the outset. Should however adequate encouragement be extended to the work, I shall endeavour to increase its speed, by augmenting the number of plates to 15 or more, in each monthly number, but at the same rate of charge (10 per rupee) which is considerably below the English cost of plates of a similar description.

As a proof that others as well as myself have felt the want of such a work, and duly appreciate the advan- tages to be derived from it, I subjoin an anonymous letter, received while engaged in drawing up this Prospec- tus. The author has certainly misunderstood the object of the Illustrations which, as I stated in the Prospec- tus to that work, is simply to supply the Indian Botanical amateur with the means of acquiring a knowledge of the Principles of the natural method of Botanical classification, by presenting him with a series of diagrams of the organs from which the characters of the orders are taken, to enable him to compare them with the written characters. As however the views of the author are strictly in accordance with my own, in regard to the neces- sity that exists for this work, I gladly avail myself of their support on the present occasion.

Sir, Permit me as an admirer of your Illustrations of Indian Botany to suggest an alteration in its plan, which will I think be a decided improvement.

Your present design is I conceive much too limited, and the work, though useful as far as it goes, is not comprehensive enough to form a sound and standard work on Botany.

Your " Prodromus" when completed, is intended 1 believe to form an entire dictionary, so to speak, of In- dian Botany, comprehending every species of the vegetable kingdom, which has come under your observation, either in a state of nature or preserved in collections. Allow me then to suggest, that your Pictorial Illustrations should form a part of this work, that every species in the Prodromus should be delineated in the other, and that instead of the long descriptions you have given, a simple reference should be made to the Prodromus, with the addition of such remarks as you might think necessary.

You may probably object to my design on account of its magnitude, and of the length of time it would oc- cupy. The former of these objections, is scarcely admissible when the work is so divided as to allow but a small part of the labor to press upon you at a time. The latter is answered by its extended usefulness.

You may urge that many purchase your Illustrations who are not in possession of your Prodromus, but 1 believe you have only to tell them to buy it.

Should yon think of considering my suggestion, you might begin to publish a series of intermediate num- bers, numbered No. I. a. I. b. and so on.

I cannot help thinking that your present plan is : too limited, and beg to subscribe myself.

Your admirer,

To Robert Wight, Esq. XYZ, Madras.

PROSPECTUS.

P. S. July 1838.— The preceding exposition of the objects of this work must, I think, satisfy every reader of the necessity that exists for its publication, but many may differ in opinion as to the judiciousness of the course I am pursuing in its preparation. I allude principally, to the propriety of taking upon myself the labour of printing the greater portion of the plates while as yet so little conversant with practical Lithograpyh, which is allowed, by all who have had any acquaintance with it, to be the most difficult, and in its results the most uncertain of the graphic arts, though the most simple in its principles. A few words in explanation of this apparent paradox may not be out of place here.

Lithography is essentially founded on chemical principles, or the attraction existing between the stone used (a soft close grained lime stone) and greasy substances on the one side, and the well known repulsion be- tween oil and water on the other. A greasy line drawn on such a stone strongly adheres ; the stone being then wetted, the line throws off the water, retaining its attraction for any fresh portion of grease that may be brought in contact with it. A roller charged with ink, having an oily substance for its base being now passed over the stone, a portion of the ink attached itself to the line, while the water prevents its equally adhering to and soiling the rest of the stone. The line thus charged being subjected to heavy pressure, parts with the ink, which adheres to the paper to which the impression is to be communicated.

Such then are the very simple principles of Lithography. The dtawing may be communicated to the stone either directly by means of Lithographic chalk, a substance containing a quantity of tallow, &c. in its com- position, or through the medium of a transfer drawing executed, on paper prepared for the purpose, with f transfer' ink, also a greasy composition, which on being firmly pressed upon a dry stone, adheres and imparts the lines which are afterwards to be charged with printing ink. So far all is easy, and the principles so self- evident, that it seems wonderful the first quarter of the 19th century had nearly passed away before they were practically applied to the diffusion of knowledge.

The practice however of the art of printing from stone, is as difficult as the principles are simple, and subject to so many sources of failure, that it seems not less wonderful, such astonishing advances towards per- fection should have been already made. The method pursued in the accompanying figures is that by tranfer, or the communication of the drawing from paper, and being that with which i am best acquainted, I shall confine my remarks to it.

From a bad transfer it is almost, if not actually, impossible to take a good print. Much care is therefore requisite in this first operation. The transfer being completed and communicated to the stone, the whole may be destroyed in the first inking, before a single impression is taken off. This accident may happen in two ways, either the ink may be too firm and adhesive and take the lines off the stone altogether, or it may be too soft and run the adjoining fine lines into one large blotted one, technically called " smutt." Both of these ac- cidents can, if confined to a small portion of the drawing be in some degree remedied, but never altogether corrected. In the course of printing, they are so liable to happen that it is rare for even the best printers to take off fifty consecutive impressions, without the occurrence of one or other of them in a greater or less degree. Hence the value of a well-proportioned printing ink, and still more, of one not liable to change its consistence from exposure to the air in the course of printing. This last is still a desideratum in Lithography ; and until supplied we can never expect to have any considerable number of uniform impressions. Some will always be found darker and others paler, in proportion to the comparative softness or hardness of the ink, and the skill with which it has been applied. The import- ance of a good roller with which to ink the drawing may be imagined from the following simile of a Lithogra- pher. " You may as soon expect to write well with a bad pen as to print delicately (in Lithography) with a bad roller." Unfortunately for the Lithographer no part of his apparatus is so difficult to make; add to these causes of failure, and many more not mentioned, the difficulty of making a fine dark and accurately proportioned ink in the first instance, its liability to change afterwards through the re-action of its component parts on each other, but especially during printing, and lastly, the great skill required in its application, only attainable by much practice, and we see sufficient reason to wonder at the perfection which has been attained by some prin- ters, and ample cause for the frequent failures of others. Aware as 1 was, when I entered upon the printing of this work, of the difficulties with which I had to contend, it may be asked, why ? unskilled as 1 was in the art, I embarked in such an undertaking. A variety of circumstances combined to induce me, to be informed of all of which could but little interest the reader; suffice therefore to say, that I knew, and felt, how much the work was wanted, I likewise knew that unless I undertook to supply it, no one else in this country possessed the same means of doing so, and lastly, 1 saw no prospect under the already existing heavy drain on my finances, of being able to raise the means of paying for the printing in any of our Lithographic printing offices : nor if I had, of having it better done, now that the little spare time of Mr. Winchester, the Company's Lithographer, certainly the best in Madras, is so fully occupied with the printing of the Illustrations that he has none to spare for other work. Add to these that the change from very active, to comparatively sedentary habits, was begin- ning to work its usual effects on my health, and that I found the exercise of printing a sufficient compensation for the more vigorous exercise I formerly took, aad then I think I have given very satisfactory reasons for making the attempt. I will not adduce the execution of this first number as affording a fair specimen of what the work will be: The adage says " practice makes perfect" many of the transfers were made by new hands and not nearly so good as I now get them every day's work is tending to improve my " prentice hand" while the recent acquisition of a good roller has given greater certainty to my endeavours to acquire skill in its application.

A subject probably of greater importance to subscribers, is to be informed of the nature and extent of my resources for continuing the work. These I have much satisfaction in adding are most ample. I have already in hand several hundred drawings : Dr. Wallieh, the indefatigable Superintendent of the Calcutta Botanic gardera has most liberally undertaken to supply me with copies of the rich collection of drawings, appertaining to that establishment, left by the late Dr. Roxburgh: several Amateurs have besides kindly offered their assistance, promising to furnish me with additional materials, while I have a Draughtsman on my own establishment, con-

PROSPECTUS.

stantly employed in encreasing my store, by making drawings of the most interesting materials, furnished by a large and richly stored herbareum.

It now only remains for me to indicate the plan of the work. My first thought was to publish it in monthly numbers of 10 plates each, on further consideration it occurred to me that numbers of 20 plates, but less fre- quent, would be a more judicious plan, as being so much more economical in postage to distant subscribers. The kindness of Dr. Wallich and other friends, having so largely augmented my means of proceeding with the work at a more rapid rate, has induced me to extend my original plan, by endeavouring to publish the larger numbers monthly, in place of every two months. With this view I am now in treaty with a well qualified Lithographer, and should I succeed in procuring his assistance, have little doubt of being able to accomplish my object. The plan now contemplated therefore, is to publish monthly, along with the Illustrations, the successive numbers of this work. The plates it will be observed are not numbered consecutively, this is for the convenience of systematic arrangement. The method which I adopt and would recommend lo others, is to provide a port-folio, and arrange the plates in the order of their numbers, as they come out. By this contrivance every facility of reference will be enjoyed, that the present methodical distribution of the vegeta- ble kingdom affords, and for more ready consultation, I would advise them to mark off each number on the mar- gin of the Prodromus, as it is figured. By this plan that work becomes an index to this. In those instances where plants not described in the Prodromus are introduced, their place in the series w ill be indicated by a dou- ble number thus 0X0 which may be equally noted on the margin of the Prodromus. The explanations of the plates will be printed on one side of the paper only, to allow of their being cut out and attached to the plate for ready reference. Those for this number will accompany the next.

PREFACE.

In concluding the first Volume of this work it can scarcely be required of me, as happens to some authors, to prove that it is wanted or to point out in what respects it is calculated to supersede the labours of those who have gone before since in truth, so far as Indian Bo- tany is eoncernad, no similar work exists with which to compare it. In its plan and execu- tion it differs widely from those of Rheede and Rumphius, each of whom have given figures of a vast number of Indian plants, but these often so rudely and incorrectly delineated that to this day many of the plants represented are unknown and in scarcely a single instance are their analytical details, apart from general habit, such as to enable even the most accomplished Botanist to say from them to what natural order the plant belongs. The somewhat more modern works of the two Burmans and Plukenet are little if at all in advance of them, though all very useful in aiding the determination of the plant they meant in their now nearly unintelligible descriptions. Modern works are not liable to the charge of want of precision, but of these the list is scanty, those of Roxburgh, Wallich, and Royle, being the only ones expressly devoted to the elucidation of Indian plants. Those of the two first named Botanists, though works of great merit, are yet on so magnificent and expensive a scale as to limit their useful- ness to the cabinet, besides which they are already nearly out of print. That of Dr. Royle though not liable, to the same extent, to these objections, is scarcely applicable to this portion of India, its illustrations being confined to the flora of the temperate regions of the Hima- layas, the plants figured are almost all unknown in the warmer climate of the south ; lastly, but a very small number of the plants figured in this work have been published in either of these three.

Since then, this publication does not interfere with any of its predecessors, it only remains for me to show that it is wanted here. This has been in part already done, in the prospectus which accompanied the first number to which I beg to refer. To what is there advanced I may now add, the great advantage of pictures in conveying to the mind's eye a quicker per- ception than words can do, of the distinctive peculiarities of an unknown plant. In descrip- tions, besides, when not drawn up by a professed Botanist, a laxity of terms is generally introduced, accompanied with such a want of analytical information that no one, whether a .Botanist or not, can possibly make out what is meant, for in truth they convey no precise or definite idea. When we turn to the often elaborate descriptions of the older Botanists we find them utterly valueless in enabling us to picture to the imagination the plant they are describing. If we take, for example, those of Rheede, we find them, apart from his plates, nearly incompre- hensible, but assisted by them, making allowance for embellishments and even occasionally for a jumble of two or three things into one, (as the drawings were not made by a Botanist) we are enabled, with the aid of specimens, to recognize most of his plants. This single fact shews the great value of even bad plates towards the advancement of Natural history, and to Botany where the number of objects of study is so great, they are, even in the present advanced state of the science, quite indispensable, especially to the young Botanist. In the preface to my illustrations I have shown, I hope satisfactorily, the great advantages derived from the natural method of studying plants, adverted to the almost universal adoption of this system by scientific Botanists, and mentioned that an intimate acquaintance with a few species only of an order, will often enable even a young Botanist rapidly to acquire a competent know-

PREFACE.

ledge of the rest. Plates giving a good representation of the general aspect of a group may often be found to supply this knowledge and in India, where large general herbarea (for the whole world) do not exist, and little progress in the study of natural affinities has been made, are therefore nearly indispensable to the student of this system of Botany, since by seeing several species of an order arranged together and put in contrast with those of some other order, he may acquire such an idea of the appearance of a group, although he may not be able to explain it to others, as will make a strong impression on himself and prove eminently useful in advancing his own researches and in preparing his mind for en- tering on the more abstract and sublime parts of the study.

According to these views, the correctness of which can scarcely, I presume, be questioned, it must be evident to every one, at all conversant with the subject, that this work, however humble in execution, is far otherwise in design and promises, if sufficient support is given to admit of its extension to three or four such volumes as the one now offered to the public, to prove one of the most useful yet published on Indian Botany, by enabling all those desirous of acquiring a knowledge of the plants of this country, to familiarize themselves with appear- ance of groups of indigenous plants, by furnishing correct figures of numerous species of each,in a form so compact and at a cost so moderate that none can complain either of its bulk, and consequent unfitness for ready reference, nor of the heavy charge to which he must submit in possessing himself of a copy, 10 rupees being but a small charge for 100 elaborately executed quarto plates, especially in this country, where the material for getting up such a work is so very expensive. I am well aware of the imperfections in the printing of some of the plates, especially of those of the earlier numbers, a defect happily diminishing in each successive issue. But when it is considered, that Lithography is yet comparatively in its infancy, even in Europe and decidedly so in this country, that success or failure often depends on atmos- pheric changes not cognizable by the senses, that this climate during a considerable part of the year is most unfavourable and that at the commencement of the work, the experience which has been gradually acquired in its progress and which enables us in a great degree to counteract these obstacles, was altogether wanting, few objections will I think be urged on that head. "When in addition I state that these two works were the first of the kind ever undertaken in Madras, that I had personally to superintend every thing, to supply from my private resources the stimulus to exertion on the part of those employed in a new and untried oc- cupation, that my own knowledge of drawing and Lithography was slight, and lastly, that I had to encounter all these difficulties while attending to my own avocations, I trust ample reason will have been urged, in extenuation of even greater imperfections than either of them present, the more so when I add, that the obstacles to be overcome were such as no one, but myself, can form an adequate conception of.

To compare this work, commenced and prosecuted under such adverse circumstances, uncheered by public approbation, and so slenderly supported that hitherto it has been con- ducted at a very considerable loss, with the luxurious and costly Lithographic botanical works of Europe would indeed be doing it an injustice, but few I believe will be found un- generous enough to try it by such a standard.

Our knowledge of the India Flora though extensive is far from being widely disseminat- ed and has been obtained through the indefatigable industry of but a small number of enthusiastic votaries of science. This paucity of labourers, in a country affording so rich and interesting a harvest, is, I believe, solely attributable to the want of local Floras and the consequent difficulties with which the study of Indian Botany has been beset. To obviate

PREFACE.

iii

this impediment to future success and promote a more extended cultivation of this not less delightful pursuit than useful science, is the grand object I have had in view in the publica- tion of this and the other botanical works on which I am engaged. That they will pro- duce this effect I have scarcely a doubt and in this hope alone, this work will be con- tinued through at least another volume, though hitherto, the support it has received has been so little commensurate with the labour and cost that, but for this expectation, it would have ended with this volume. But impressed as I am with the conviction that it will yet fulfil the object of its publication I have resolved deo volente to carry it through a second volume of equal extent : a resolution in which I am strengthened, not less by the daily increasing in- terest which every thing connected with India is acquiring and by the anxiety expressed by both the European and local governments, to obtain correct information regarding the pro- ducts and resources of this rich, but until lately, much neglected division of the British empire than by the enlarging list of subscribers. Should my anticipations of success be justified by the result a third volume may possibly be added raising, the number of species figured to 1000, after which, it must, I imagine, either drop altogether or be resigned into other hands. The latter would of the two, in my opinion, be the preferable alternative, as it could not but be a source of regret, after forming the machinery for carrying it on, that it should so soon cease to work, while there remains so much to be done. The flora of India, calculated at a very low rate, exceeds 10,000 species, excellent figures of about 2000 of which were left by Roxburgh. Most of these are still unpublished, but are now, by the public spirit and liberality of Dr. Wallich in course of publication here. To allow two- thirds of that noble collection to remain unknown, through want of present support to this work, and the knowledge of the indefatigable labours of that excellent man be longer left in obscurity, while the means of bringing them to light are not only at hand but actually working, would indeed be a source of deep regret to future Botanists, but which, I fear, can only be avoided by the living Botanists of the present time extending a more liberal patronage to this publication, which, exclusive of the Government aid, has not paid for paper on which a small impression is printed, and holds out no inducement to any one to embark in such an unprofitable concern.

One other advantage to which this work may lay claim over most other works of a similar description, consists in the rapidity of publication. Smith's English Botany,which extended to 2592 plates, was 24 years in publishing: at the rate of publication which this work has at- tained it would in that time extend to upwards of 5000 species, but supposing only half that num- ber published, the work will form, beyond all comparison; the most valuable book of reference for Indian Botany ever published or likely to be even attempted for yet many years. With these few remarks I conclude this brief preface and leave the work to speak for itself and most cordially hope it may not speak in vain, but trust it will yet become one of as constant refer- ence as the eminently praiseworthy and, for the time they were undertaken and executed, meritorious labours of the excellent Van Rheede and prove to Indian Botanists, so far as it may extend, what Smith's English Botany has long been to British ones a work of unexcep- tionable authority.

SUBSCRIBERS TO THE ICONES PLANTARUM INDI/E ORIENTALIS.

Subscribers' Names.

Madras Government

Anderson, W. B. Esq

Anstruther, P. Esq

Aubury, Major Genl. Sir T

Adams, J. Esq

Bertie, A. Mr. Apothecary

Buttler, Lieut. H. M. 55th Foot.. Cadenhead, J. Ensign 14th Regt..

Chester, G. Vetr. Surg

Cullen, W. Col

Campbell, Lieut. 50th Regt

Campbell, Lieut. 21st Regt

Capon, D. Lieut. Col

Christens, F. C. C. Esq

Con ran, J- T. Esq

Columbo, Medical Liby

Cracroft, Lieut . . . ~

Dunlop, W. W. Capt. 50th Regt

Edgeworth, M. P. Esq

Gough, G. S. Esq

Griffith, W. Esq

Goodall, H. Esq

Grant, John Esq

Hutton, G. Capt

Haleman, F. Lieut Col

Subscribers' Names.

Hooper, G. S. Esq

Jenkins, F. Capt

Jerdon, J. C. Esq

Kermis, Dr

Law, J. S. Esq

MacCaulay, Z. Esq

Munro, Lieut. II. M. 39th Regt...

McLeod, Dr. F. Esq

Morris, J. Capt. B. J

Mason, F. Revd. a. m. Missinonary

North, R. M. Lieut. 2d Cavy

Ostell, and Co. Messrs

Orme, F. ,Esq

Ommainey, M. C. Esq

Parr, F. Captain

Plumbe, R. Esq. . .

Robertson, R. H. Lieut. 3(>th Regt

Robson, J. Esq. M. D

Stewart, A. Esq

Stevenson, Jas. Esq

Spilsbury, G. G. Esq

Thomson, Major Roynl Engineers.

Wallich, N. Esq

Wilson, Major Genl

Wylie, J. Esq

No. of copies.

Icones,

14

N°- I.

EXPLANATION OF PLATES.

Guatteria longifolia. "Wall.— 1. Flowering branch— natural size 2-3. Back and front views of a stamen— i. Ovary cut vertically, ovule, solitary— magnified.

Polanisia icosandra natural size 2. A directed flower, the '3 stamens removed showing the forms and relative size of the

sepals, petals, style and stigma 3. The same, the petals removed to show the stamens 4. An anther after having shed its pollen 5. Ov;iry, style and stigma 6. Mature fruit after dehiscence, showing the mode of attachment of the seed— 7. A portion of the placenta and attached seed— ?nagra£/i'e(Z— 8. A seed cut vertically— all more or less mag- nified.

3

Mollugo disticha natural size 2. Sepals— 3. The same opened, 160

showing the insertion of the stamens— 4. A capsule burst— 5 . A portion of the placenta removed, to show the mode of attachment of the seeds— 6. A seed 7. The same cut longitudinally, showing the embryo rolled round the mealy albumen— all magnified.

Lebretonia procumbens 2. Caiyx, mvolucrum, ovary, style

171

and stigmas— 3. Staminal tube formed by the union of the filaments —4, An anther— 5. Capsule— 6. The same cut transversely all more or less magnified.

12

-— - Abufilon indicum— natural size— 2. Staminal tube adhering to the base of the petals— 3. An anther shedding its pollen —4. The same before opening— 5. Calyx, ovary, style and stigmas— 6. A capsule divided vertically, showing the position of the seeds— 7. A seed— 8. The same cut longitudinally, showing the position of the embryo and radicle— 9. Embryo removed and slightly opened— all more or less magnified.

■— Bergera Koinigii— natural size— 2. A flower partially dissected, showing the calyx, corolla, stamens and sti»ma 3. Ovary cut vertically, showing the pendulous ovules— 4. The same cut transverse- ly, showing the two cells— 5. A cluster of fruit— natural size— 6. A fruit cut transversely— 7. A portion of a leaf magnified, to show the position of the pellucid dots— all magnified.

u

Clausena Willdenowii— 2. A flower, the front sepal removed to show the attachment of the petals— 3. The same, the petals removed showing the stamens, style and stigma— 4. All the stamens but one removed, showing the ovary, style, stigma, and depression on the filament 5. Ovary cut vertically, showing the ovules— 6. The same cut transversely— 7. A fruit cut transversely, showing that all the ovules but one have aborted— 8. A seed— 9 and 10. Back and front views of the seed lobes, with the embryo at the base all more or less magnified.

5

Hibiscus lampsis— natural size— 2. Staminal column 3. Calyx,

involucrum, ovary, style and stigma— 4. A petal removed 5. Anthers and pollen— 6. Fruit cut vertically 7. The same cut trans- versely— 8. A seed cut transversely— all more or Jess magnified.

t>

Hibiscus lunarifolius— 2, Ovary, stamens and stigmas— natural

-1"8 size— 3. Staminal tube, adhering to the bottom of the corolla, split ut> —4. An anther— 5. Style, and stigmas— 0. A young fruit sur- rounded by its involucrum and calyx— 7. The same split vertically in the line of the valves— 8. The same cut transversely, showing its five cells, and the arrangement of the seed in them— 9. A portion of a leaf magnified, to show the stillate pubescence so common in the order —all more or less magnified.

189

Paritium tiliaceum— 2. Calyx, ovary, style, stigma, and stami- nal tube— 3. An anther— 4. Ovary cut vertically— 5. Capsule full grown and splitting— 6. Capsule cut transversely— 7. A carpel Separatee^ showing the introflexed margin of the valves which give the 10-celled appearance to the fruit— 8. A seed— 9. The same cut lengthwise 10. The embryo removed its crumpled foliaceous cotyledons spread out to show their form— all more or less magnified.

8

197

Thespesia populnea— natural size 2 Calyx, staminal, tube, ovary and stigma, with one petal left to show the relative size of the parts— natural size— 3. Staminal tube removed and split open i 4. An anther 5. Ovary, style and stigma G. Ovary cut vertically 7. Stigma— 8. A young capsule cut transversely 9. Portion of a placenta, with tw o young seeds attached— all magnied.

9.10.11

These three plates represent what I consider three vr-

' rieties of our Indian cotton, but which Roxbnrgh and others esteem distinct species, viz. 9 Gossypium obtusilblium Roxburgh, with the usual dissections, 10 Gossypium arboreum and II G, herbaceum. The two last are copied from Royle's Illustrations.

15

Feronia elephantum— natural size— 2. A dissected flower, show-

341 t *

ing the ovary and the filaments all apparently united into a tube

by dense tufts of hair at the base— 3. Ba ck and front views of detached

anthers, showing the tufts of hair on the filaments— 4. Style, stigma

and ovary, cut vertically— 5. Ovary cut transversely 6. Full grown

fruit cut transversely all magnified.

16

. JSgle marmelos— natural size— 2. A flower, the petals remov-

'-14''

ed to show the stamens and stigma— 3. The calyx thrown back to show the torus, insertions of the stamens, the ovary and stigma : the upper figure, a detached petal— 4. A transverse section of the fruit— 5. A seed— 6. The same cut transversely— all more or less magnified.

17

Azadirachta indica— natural size 2. The staminal tube remov-

ed and opened 3. Ovary, style and stigma, with one petal left to show its form— 4. Ovary cut vertically, showing its pendulous ovules —5. Ovary cut transversely— 6. A cluster of fruit— 7. A fruit cut trans- versely— all more or less magnified..

18

Oxalis corniculata— natural size— -2. A flower opened length-

^ wise, to show its different parts 3. The ovary cut vertically

4. The same cut transversely, showing its 9 cells— 5. A seed detached

all more or less magnified.

19

Berchemia parviflora natural size 2, A dissected flower,

' showing the ovary sepals, minute scale-like petals opposite the

stamens and somewhat embracing the anthers— 3 and 4. Ovary and stigma, the former cut transversely and vertically— 5 and 6. Full grown fruit cut transversely, showing that they may be either 2 or 3-celled, with one seed in each cell -all magnified.

20 » '

. Cicer arietinum— 2. A dissected flower showing all its parts

723 3. An anther— 4. The ovary cut hwise— 5. A Legume

—6. The same opened— 7 Ssc. the differeat parts of a dissected seed—

magnified.

When arranging the plan of this work, the second Number of which is this day published, I could not anticipate the liberal support which has been extended to it, by having placed at my disposal copies of the magnificent collection of drawings of East Indian plants formed under the direction of the late excellent Dr. Roxburgh, so often quoted in our Prodromus under the abbreviated title of E. 1. C. Mas. (East India Company's Museum) For this favour the lovers of the amabilis scientia are solely indebted to the liberality and public spirit of Dr. Wallich, the present assiduous Superintendent of the Calcutta Botanic garden, under whose charge the origi- nals are placed. Not calculating on such an accession to my means of carrying on the work, it was my intention, in the first instance, to confine myself to the representation of Peninsular plants, and to have numbered the figures, not consecutively, but according to the general number under which they are described in our Prodromus.

The introduction of Roxburgh's figures renders a deviation from this part of my original plan necessary, on which account it is now my intention to number the whole series consecutively, adding however to the Peninsular planls, the genera1 number of the Prodromus, both, to facilitate reference to the verbal description, and to point out, by a glance at the number, those which are ascertained to be natives of this part of India.

I may here observe that Roxburgh's drawings are generally on so large a scale as to render the introduction into this work of fac similes of the originals quite impossible. To obviate that inconvenience, and at the same time to prevent the risk of misrepresentation, portions only will be taken when that can be done without injuring the character of the figure, but when such a cur- tailing will diminish its usefulness as a guide to the knowledge of the species, as in the case of Nephelium rubrum, No. 24, a reduced figure of the whole will he given, as in figure No. 2.5, which is the same plant. Many of his figures will be introduced into the early numbers.

While correcting the proof sheet of this notice I received from Dr. Wallich, a letter, in an- swer to one of mine transmitting for his examination and opinion copies of the two figures just quoted, from which I take the liberty of making the following extract approving of this plan. " I had the pleasure to receive yesterday your letter of the 30th ultimo, and the two proofs of Nephelium rubrum lithographs. The reduced one is excellent in all respects, and no doubt this plan will answer far better than having double plates, which in many cases would not even prove sufficient. I repeat it, in my humble opinion the manner of the reduction is exactly as I would wish it to be." Thus sanctioned, in the course I had chalked out for myself, I can no longer hesitate about pursuing it, and for the future shall avoid giving double plates of the same sub- ject, except where they are absolutely indispensable to the perfect elucidation of the species.

R. W.

EXPLANATION OF PLATES.

Camparis grandis— natural size— 2. A dissected flower, show-

94 iug the sepals, torus, stamens, gynophore, and ovary, with single detached petal-3. A fruit cut transversely— all magnified.

22

. Trichaurus erieoides— natural size— 2. A flower, showing the

143 relative size of the different parts— 3. The same, the